One such a man was Hernado cortes, the famous slayer of the aztecs (Macdonald 21). Diego velasquez, the governor of Cuba, oversaw the expedition to mexico. He had planned to assign Cortes the position, but feared his ambition, and forfeited the voyage. Cortes heard of the ploy, and immediately set off. On reaching the mainland his goal was nothing less than the conquest of Mexico. After convincing Spain that it was a just war against the natives due to their barbaric acts.
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The other groups of people were made up of merchants and artisans who made their living in the shipyards and marketplaces. The catholic Church was also a powerful figure at this time, late 1400s. They helped to role the government, and encouraged the spreading of the faith essay throughout the known world. Around the high point of the aztecs, 1450, Spain was very wealthy. Even through the prosperity many people were still very poor. The looked for new ways to make money. The sea was their answer. Spain has a vast amount of coastline and many people made their living off of the sea. The sailor s were very adventurous, and travel throughout the world seeking new and rare commodities. After Christopher Columbus brought news of the new world many people hoped to become rich.
For something to be immoral a person must know and understand that the action is wrong. The aztecs not kites only did not know that human sacrifices were iniquitous, their religion taught them that they were a necessity of life. Human sacrifices are by far the only debatable moral issue, and do to the fact that they did not understand the morality, they are not held accountable for. The aztec s religion may not have been completely moral, but it was not immoral (Defrates 17). Kings and queens controlled the Spanish government. There were also nobles that would assist the king in governing the country. These nobles owned large estates that were worked on by the common people. Some ordinary men also owned their own farms.
These underworlds were called Mictlan, the place of the dead. In the lowest level lived Mictlanteuctli, the god of death. The underworlds were the most common place that dead people would be kept. The struggle through the underworlds was extremely tedious. Much suffering occurs until the man finally reached the ninth and last underworld. Once there the man would be able to rest eternally with Mictlanteuctli. However, if the man were to die on earth for a good cause, he may go to the heavens. For example, the aztecs water believed that if a woman were to die in childbirth or a warrior was killed in battle, they may go to Tlalocan, the first level of the heavens. Even donation though the aztec s religion did contain human sacrifice does not necessarily mean that they were immoral.
During all five suns, that man lived on earth, a huge disc situated itself in the center of the universe. It surrounded the earth in an enormous ring of water. This vast water system connected the earth with the heavens. Above the earth were thirteen different heavens that served as the homes to the gods. The storms, sun, sky, stars, moon, etc occupy the first four levels of heaven, known as Teteocan. The next levels of the heavens were called Ilhuicatl. The red God of Fire, the Place of the yellow Sun God and the Place of the White evening Star God live in the Ilhuicatl. At the very top level lived Omecteuctli, the supreme creator of all (Fisher 11). Below the earth were nine underworlds.
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Their final dismiss came with the great flood which they had to fight. Water sprang from the center of the earth causing the sky to collapse. Most of the men drowned, but some were able to survive the raging waters by morphing into fish. After the failure of the four previous suns, nanahuatl, another god that was created by Ometeuctli, sacrificed his own life by throwing himself into the divine fire, a mythological fire pit of death. Slowly the other gods saw a new sun paper that had begun to rise in the east. The suns flares were so extremely intense that no one was able to look. In order to avoid the destruction of the fifth sun, and final sun, the aztecs believed that they must sacrifice their captives of war.
By giving blood to the sun, it will obtain enough energy to continue to rise each morning. The aztecs believed blood was the most vital element that kept a man alive, and the same must have been true for the fifth sun. On the other hand, if blood was not given to sustain the fifth sun s life, chaos would rule. Earthquakes would rumble and destroy the world. The fifth sun would meet its final end when the earthquakes shook the very stars down from the sky. There would be no sixth sun. The structure of the universe would remain constant despite the vast destruction of the suns (Von Hagen 27).
The human giants were forced to survive only on a small amount of food: acorns and pine nuts. As a result of this they grew feeble and slow. Jaguars eventually devoured the half-sun, and in the darkness, they were able to kill the giants. Quetzalcoatl, the god of Wind, created the second sun. In this sun, man had to survive on mesquite tree seeds, but still the seeds were not enough nourishment for the men to survive the harsh winds that were to come. Hurricanes eventually blew the humans away and led them to their demise.
However, some people were able to survive the great wind by transforming into monkeys. Tlaloc, the god of Fire, was the creator of the third sun. During this age, men harvested grain for their survival. Huge volcanoes erupted, and their cinders rained from the sky to consume the entire world. However, a few men were able to change their form into birds which were able to escape the scalding heat (Roberts 32). Chalchiuhtlicue, the goddess of Water, created the fourth sun. At this time, men attempted to survive on a seed, which was called acicintli, but it turned out to be not enough food to sustain the humans.
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The five suns are part of the aztec s long history of the universe. The aztecs believe that there was a supreme creator of all, taxi who they would call Ometeuctli, but often referred to as the lord of duality because he was both male and female. Ometeuctlis cosmic water coupling gave birth to four lesser, creator-gods. These gods would later create the five suns. Each creator-god struggles for supremacy over the others using his own unique cosmic force: earth, fire, wind, or water. When these cosmic forces are in equilibrium, there exists an age or sun from the balance. When the cosmic balance is disrupted, the result will be destruction of the sun, of the earth and of all men (Roberts 26). Tezcatlipoca, the god of Earth, created the first sun. He mistakenly created men as giants and furthermore he created only half of a sun.
The society that inhabited it was highly organized. The city was ruled by the king, but dominated by the noble priest and tax collectors. It also contained an elite warrior society, and an active and extremely vital merchant class (Baquedano 9). After this brief alliance the aztecs leaders refused permanent friendship with other tribes due to the fact that they believed they were the chosen people of their god huitzilopochtli and that huitzilopochtli had forbidden alliance. This commitment to war played a large part in the rise of the aztec Empire. It caused many tribes to declare war on the aztecs creating an opening for the aztecs to start their era of conquest. The aztecs would attempt war with neighboring tribes for to distinct purposes: to exact tribute for maintaining the society and to capture many prisoners to sacrifice for their gods. In the aztec religion their world-view stems from the idea that there were four previous suns before the present-day fifth sun.
conflict arose between the aztec and the neighboring tribes. Three of the neighboring tribes, the tepanec, the culhua, and the xochimilca, allied themselves against the aztecs and defeated them. They enslaved the majority of the aztecs but a small group managed to escape to an island on the nearby salt-water lake of Texcoco. There they established their capital Tenochtitlan. Later the culhua declared war on the xochimilca; the aztec allied themselves with the culhua and through this alliance the culhua won. Tenochtitlan quickly became the capital of the aztecs soon to be vast empire. The metropolis was decorated with great canals, colorful market places, and grand temples galore.
This reports the story of thesis the aztecs; their life, struggles, religion, and eventual confrontation with the Spaniards. This essay will explain the moral issue behind the facts and help the reader to establish a better understanding of the issue. It is believed that groups of hunter-gatherers, known as the native americans, while hunting, crossed a land bridge where the bearing Strait is, and arrived in North America. Once in the Americas these people migrated throughout the southern and Northern continents (Macdonald 6). The aztecs are thought to have originated in the four corners area of the. And started a migration southward in 1168. After the aztecs began their migration from their native land, which the aztecs called Aztlan, they traveled in search of a new home because huitzilopochtli their sun and war god ordered them to make a pilgrimage to a new land. He stated that they were to settle in the first place in which they saw an eagle with a snake in its beak, sitting on a cactus.
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Research Paper, many people claim that they understand morality, but what is the true meaning of morality? The dictionary states it to retrolisthesis mean: The quality of being in accord with the standards of right or good conduct. A system of ideas of right and wrong conduct. A rule or lesson in moral conduct. To understand morality a person must want to be and act moral. The process of being moral infers for a person to be virtuous in their conduct. This would call a person to act in a manner similar to god s plan. Only through acting moral and meditation on the subject can one truly established what the morality of it actually.