The Islamized north, seen as a vast expense of inhospitable desert with little productive resources except livestock, dates, and some cereals, was mistrusted and relatively neglected, and people there kept more to their "traditional" ways in a cultural and educational sense. In the first decade of Chadian independence the northerners also remained relatively excluded from national politics; Northerners have had the upper hand in Chadian politics since 1979. It must be kept in mind that, before colonization, the "north-south" divide, so often referred to now, was nonexistent in Chad. In 1960, when independence was granted by France, chad had no "national identity" recognizable to the population at large. Ethnoregional traditions formed the framework for group identification, with the "nation" only as an abstract concept. Southerners (who were the first to clamor for independence) formed the state elite, but did not succeed in building a representative or democratic political system. Rebellion in northern regions emerged, notably that of the frolinat (National Liberation Front) movement in 1966. The civil wars of the 1970s and 1980s, though resulting from exclusionist state policies, authoritarianism, and divergent views on the role of the state, fueled group tensions.
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Additional national symbols are not known, although various parties and rebel fronts have used their own flags. History and Ethnic Relations, emergence of writing the nation. Chad did not exist as a political unit before the French conquest of 1900, but was an area of important indigenous state formation and had seen Arab immigration (of groups collectively called Djoheina and Hassaouna) and Islamization since the fourteenth century. There was a conglomerate of kingdoms (such as Bagirmi and the pre-Islamic state of Kanem-Bornu chiefdoms and sultanates (such as ouaddaï and Tama) of varying size and ethnic composition; amongst these states, war and raiding were frequent. The descendants of these states in the north and east are today's seminomadic pastoralist peoples and cultivators in the northern walk and central parts of the country. Southern Chad is inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that, although culturally related, traditionally had no strong centralized polities. The largest group among them are the sara, although they themselves form a combination of twelve "tribal" groups that never showed any strong unity. Other groups are the mundang, the massa, and the Mbum. The southerners were the victim of a tradition of slave raiding by such northern groups as the barma, fulani, bagirmi, tubu, and Maba; this has left deep scars in the fabric of Chadian society. It was because of the promise to end slave raiding (and the killing of the notorious warlord and slave raider Rabih az-zubayr, who was of Sudanese origin) that the sara peoples welcomed the French colonists in 1900. Under French colonial rule, the southern part of the country received most of the attention in the domains of economic and educational investment, and many people there converted to Christianity.
About 90 percent of the population lives in the southern 15 percent of Chadian territory. There are more than 100 languages spoken in Chad, virtually all belonging to two great languages families: Nilo-saharan and Afro-Asiatic. The precise extent and variety of the linguistic situation are not known, because of a notable lack of research. Language does not overlap with "ethnic group" identity, as some languages are spoken by groups identifying themselves with different ethnic/regional labels. Arabic, sara, and French are widely spoken, the latter used in education and the administration, especially in the south. The use of Arabic, traditionally an important commercial language, is expanding across the country. The main symbol of Chad is the national flag, consisting of three vertical fields of blue, yellow, all and orange-red, without any figurative decoration.
32 percent of the total population the Arabs (22 percent the maba, the tubu, and paper the Mbum. Many of the ethnic groups are also found in neighboring countries such as Cameroon, niger, the sudan, and vertebrae Nigeria, having been separated by the colonial and postcolonial boundaries. Most Chadians live in rural areas. Urban centers include the capital n'djamena (approx. 800,000 people, most of them now Arabs or Arabic-speaking sarh (120,000 moundou (110,000 bongor, Abéché, and Doba. Life expectancy is approximately forty-eight years, while the. Chad annual population growth rate.5 percent.
Chad is basically a large plain, with some mountain ranges, including the guéra massif in the center and the ouaddaï or Ennedi massif in the east; in the north in the middle of the desert lies the spectacular Tibesti range, where cultivation is possible due. In the southwest, on the border with Cameroon, niger, and Nigeria, is lake chad, a shrinking water mass lying at an altitude of about 790 feet (240 meters). The two main rivers—the logoni and the Chari— are in southwest Chad and run into lake chad. They are navigable for most of the year and are also used extensively for fishing. Chad's population is some 7 million (1999 giving a population density.2 people per square mile (5.5 per square kilometer). The fertile southern third of the country has a density.7 per square mile (30 per square kilometer). There are an estimated 180 ethnic groups in Chad (although their boundaries are often hard to establish). The largest are the sara (approx.
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It gained independence from France in 1960 after a sixty-year colonial period rule that did not create a meaningful national unity. Within the country's borders one may distinguish several national cultures that are based on the ethnoregional and religious affiliations of the population groups. Many of the cultures can be traced back to a complex precolonial history of competing indigenous states and sultanates. The name Chad is derived the from designation of the great lake chad (originally called Kuri) by the sixteenth century author and imam Ibn Fortu. Chad is somewhat similar to sudan in that it has a northern part inhabited by an Islamic (and partly Arabic-speaking) population of pastoralist semidesert peoples, and a southern part of Christians and traditional religious people, engaged in mixed agriculture, crafts, and trade. These two parts each comprise about half of the population. Postcolonial Chad has, like sudan, been marked by deep regional-ethnic divisions and a violent history of struggle for power among the various elites that have alternative visions of the state and their place within.
Armed rebellions and years of protracted and destructive civil war, in which the role of Libya was at times notable, have characterized Chad's recent history. Starting in 1993, the armed conflicts subsided and some sort of democratization process was instigated. Chad is a resource-poor, landlocked country, bordered by the sudan, the central African translate Republic, cameroon, nigeria, niger, and Libya. It has an area of 495,752 square miles (1,284,000 square kilometers most of it desert, semidesert, or savannah. In the extreme south there are lush forests and agricultural areas. The country is divided into three climatic-ecological zones from north to south: the saharan zone (dry and hot, with livestock raising, minor cultivation, and some trade the sahelian zone (more rainfall, livestock raising, and cereal cultivation and the southern semitropical zone (with good rainfall. The country is drought-prone and suffers from periodic famine.
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Theres no possible way to provide tracking for a million envelopes. I dont like that youre getting political. Why dont you just stick to card games? Why dont you stick to seeing how many hot Wheels cars you can fit up your asshole? Is Cards Against Humanity being politically correct now? Were just being regular correct. Chad is a vast, ethnically diverse African country.
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