Fall of France and establishment of the vichy government edit France declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, following the german invasion of Poland on 1 September. After the eight-month Phoney war, the germans launched their offensive in the west on Within days, it became clear that French military forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent. 25 government and military leaders, deeply shocked by the débâcle, debated how to proceed. Many officials, including Prime minister paul reynaud, wanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French navy and colonial resources. Others, particularly the vice-Premier Philippe pétain and the commander-in-Chief, general Maxime weygand, insisted that the responsibility of the government was to remain in France and share the misfortune of its people. The latter view called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. 26 :121126 While this debate continued, the government was forced to relocate several times, to avoid capture by advancing German forces, finally reaching Bordeaux. Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads.
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Such a flour harsh critique of French society could only generate so much support, and as such Vichy blamed French problems on various "enemies" of France, the chief of which was Britain, resume the "eternal enemy" that had supposedly conspired via masonic lodges first to weaken France. No other nation was attacked as frequently and violently as Britain was in Vichy propaganda. In Pétain's radio speeches, Britain was always portrayed as the " Other a nation that was the complete antithesis of everything good in France, the blood-soaked "perfidious Albion " and the relentless "eternal enemy" of France whose ruthlessness knew no bounds. The chief themes of Vichy Anglophobia were British "selfishness" in using and abandoning France after instigating wars, British "treachery" and British plans to take over French colonies. The three examples that were used to illustrate these themes were the dunkirk evacuation in may 1940, the royal navy attack at Mers-el-Kébir on the French Mediterranean fleet that killed over 1,300 French sailors in July 1940, and the failed Anglo-Free french attempt to seize. Typical of Vichy anti-British propaganda was the widely distributed pamphlet published in August 1940 and written by self-proclaimed "professional Anglophobe" Henri béraud titled faut-il réduire l'Angleterre en esclavage? Should England be reduced to Slavery? the question in the title was merely rhetorical. Additionally, vichy mixed Anglophobia with racism and antisemitism to portray the British as a racially degenerate "mixed race" working for Jewish capitalists, in contrast to the "racially pure" peoples on the continent of Europe who were building a "New Order". In an interview conducted by béraud with Admiral Darlan published in Gringoire newspaper in 1941, darlan was"d as saying that if the "New Order" failed in Europe it would mean ".here in France, the return to power of the jews and Freemasons subservient.
Pétain argued that rescuing the French people from la décadence required a period of authoritarian government which would restore national unity and filsafat the traditionalist morality which Pétain claimed the French had forgotten. Despite his highly negative view of the Third Republic, pétain argued that la France profonde deep France denoting profoundly French aspects of French culture) still existed, and that the French people needed to return to what Pétain insisted was their true identity. Alongside this claim for a moral revolution was Pétain's call for France to turn inwards, to withdraw from the world, which Pétain always portrayed as a hostile and threatening place full of endless dangers for the French. The key component of Vichy's ideology was Anglophobia. 14 In part, vichy's virulent Anglophobia was due to its leaders' personal dislike of the British, as Marshal Pétain, pierre laval and Admiral François Darlan were all Anglophobes. As early as February 1936, pétain had told the Italian Ambassador to France that "England has always been France's most implacable enemy he went on to say that France had "two hereditary enemies namely germany and Britain, with the latter being easily the more dangerous. Beyond that, in order to justify both the armistice with Germany and the révolution nationale, vichy needed to portray the French declaration of war on Germany as a hideous mistake, and the French society under the Third Republic as degenerate and rotten. The révolution nationale together with Pétain's policy of la France seule france alone were meant to "regenerate" France from la décadence that was said to have destroyed French society and brought about the defeat of 1940.
8 The vichy government tried to assert its legitimacy by symbolically connecting itself with the gallo-roman period of France's history, and celebrated the gaulish chieftain Vercingetorix as the "founder" of the nation. 9 It was asserted that just as the defeat of the gauls in the 52 bc battle of Alesia had been the moment in French history when a sense of common nationhood was born, the defeat of 1940 would again unify the nation. 9 The vichy government's "Francisque" insignia featured two symbols from the gallic period: the baton and the double-headed hatchet ( labrys ) arranged so as to resemble the fasces, symbol of the Italian Fascists. 9 to advance his message, marshal Pétain frequently spoke on French radio. In his radio speeches, pétain always used the personal pronoun je, retrolisthesis portrayed himself as a christ-like figure sacrificing himself for France while also assuming a god-like tone of a semi-omniscient narrator who knew truths about the world that the rest of the French did not. 10 to justify the vichy ideology of the révolution nationale national revolution pétain needed a radical break with the republic, and during his radio speeches the entire French Third Republic era was always painted in the blackest of colors, a time of la décadence decadence. Summarising Pétain's speeches, the British historian Christopher Flood wrote that Pétain blamed la décadence on "political and economic liberalism, with its divisive, individualistic and hedonistic values—locked in sterile rivalry with its antithetical outgrowths, socialism and Communism.".
Historians have particularly debated the circumstances of the vote by the national Assembly of the Third Republic, granting full powers to pétain on The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted. The legitimacy of the vichy government was recognized by the United Kingdom, the United States, and other nations, which extended diplomatic recognition to petain's government. Ideology edit The vichy regime sought an anti-modern counter-revolution. The traditionalist right in France, with strength in the aristocracy and among Catholics, had never accepted the republican traditions of the French revolution. It demanded a return to traditional lines of culture and religion and embraced authoritarianism, while dismissing democracy. 6 The communist element, strongest in labour unions, turned against Vichy in June 1941, when Germany invaded the soviet Union. Vichy was intensely anti-communist and generally pro-german; American historian Stanley. Payne found that it was "distinctly rightist and authoritarian but never fascist ". 7 Political scientist Robert Paxton analyzed the entire range of Vichy supporters, from reactionaries to moderate liberal modernizers, and concluded that genuine fascist elements had but minor roles in most sectors.
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The nazis had some intention citation needed of annexing a large swath of northeastern France and replacing that region's inhabitants with German settlers, and initially forbade French dissertations refugees from returning to this region. These restrictions, which were never thoroughly enforced, were basically abandoned following the invasion of the soviet Union, which had the effect of turning the nazis' territorial ambitions almost exclusively to the east. Citation needed german troops guarding the boundary line of the northeastern Zone interdite were withdrawn on the night of 1718 December 1941 although the line remained in place on paper for the remainder of the occupation. Nevertheless, effectively Alsace-lorraine was annexed: German law applied to the region, its inhabitants were conscripted into the wehrmacht citation needed and pointedly the customs posts separating France from Germany were placed back where they had been between. Similarly, a sliver of French territory in the Alps was under direct Italian administration from June 1940 to september 1943.
Throughout the rest of the country, civil servants were under the formal authority of French ministers in Vichy. Citation needed rené bousquet, the head of French police nominated by vichy, exercised his power in Paris through his second-in-command, jean Leguay, who coordinated raids with the nazis. German laws, however, took precedence over French ones algorithm in the occupied territories, and the germans often rode roughshod over the sensibilities of Vichy administrators. On 11 november 1942, following the landing of the Allies in North Africa ( Operation Torch the Axis launched Operation Anton, occupying southern France and disbanding the strictly limited " Armistice Army " that Vichy had been allowed by the armistice. Legitimacy edit vichy's claim to be the legitimate French government was denied by Free france and by all subsequent French governments 1 after the war. They maintain that Vichy was an illegal government run by traitors, having come to power through an unconstitutional coup d'état. Pétain was constitutionally appointed the Premier by President Lebrun on, and he was legally within his rights to sign the armistice with Germany; however, his decision to ask the national Assembly to dissolve itself while granting him dictatorial powers has been more controversial.
As the last premier of the Third Republic, being a reactionary by inclination, he blamed the Third Republic's democracy for France's sudden defeat by germany. He set up a paternalistic, authoritarian regime that actively collaborated with Germany, vichy's official neutrality notwithstanding. The vichy government cooperated with the nazis' racial policies. Terminology edit France under German occupation (nazis occupied the southern zone starting in november 1942—Operation Case Anton ). The yellow zone was under Italian administration. After the national Assembly under the Third Republic voted to give full powers to Philippe pétain on, the name république française (French Republic) disappeared from all official documents.
From that point on, the regime was referred to officially as the État Français (French State). Because of its unique situation in the history of France, its contested legitimacy, 1 and the generic nature of its official name, the "French State" is most often represented in English by the synonyms "Vichy France "Vichy regime "government of Vichy or in context, simply. Personal flag of Philippe pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de l'État Français) The territory under the control of the vichy government was the unoccupied, southern portion of France south of the line of Demarcation, as established by the Armistice of, and the. This was called the Unbesetztes Gebiet (Unoccupied zone) by the germans, and known as the zone libre (Free zone) in France, or less formally as the "southern zone" ( zone du sud ) especially after Operation Anton, the invasion of the zone libre by german. Other contemporary colloquial terms for the zone libre were based on abbreviation and wordplay, such as the "zone nono for the non-occupied Zone. 4 Jurisdiction edit In theory, the civil jurisdiction of the vichy government extended over most of metropolitan France, french Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, the French protectorate of Tunisia, and the rest of the French colonial empire that accepted the authority of Vichy; only. 5 Alsace-lorraine was officially still part of France, as the reich never annexed the region. The reich government at the time was not interested in attempting to enforce piecemeal annexations in the west (although it later did annex Luxembourg) - it operated under the assumption that Germany's new western border would be determined in peace negotiations that would be attended. Since Adolf Hitler's overall territorial ambitions were not limited to recovering Alsace-lorraine, and since Britain was never brought to terms, these peace negotiations never took place.
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Following the Allied invasion of short France in June 1944 and the liberation of France later that year, the Free french Provisional government of the French Republic (gprf) was installed by the Allies as France's government, led by de gaulle. Under a "national unanimity" cabinet uniting the many factions of the French Resistance, the gprf re-established a provisional French Republic, thus apparently restoring continuity with the Third Republic. Most of the legal French government's leaders at Vichy fled or were subject to show trials by the gprf, and a number were quickly executed for "treason" in a series of purges ( épuration légale ). Thousands of collaborators were summarily executed by local communists and the resistance in so-called "savage purges" ( épuration sauvage ). The last of the French state exiles were captured in the sigmaringen enclave by de gaulle's French 1st Armoured division in April 1945. Pétain, who had voluntarily made his way back to France via switzerland, was also put on trial for treason by the new Provisional government, and received a death sentence, but this was commuted to life imprisonment by de gaulle. Only four senior Vichy officials were tried for crimes against humanity, although many more had participated in the deportation of Jews for extermination in nazi concentration camps, abuses of prisoners, and severe acts against members of the resistance. Contents overview edit further information: World War ii, events preceding World War ii in Europe, and causes of World War ii in 1940, marshal Pétain was known as a first World War hero, the victor of the battle of Verdun.
The occupation also presented certain advantages, such as keeping the French navy and French colonial empire under French control, and avoiding full occupation of the country by germany, thus maintaining a degree of French independence and neutrality. The French government at Vichy never joined the Axis alliance. Germany kept two million French soldiers prisoner, carrying out forced labour. They were hostages to ensure that Vichy would reduce its military forces and pay a heavy tribute in gold, food, and supplies to germany. French police were ordered to round up Jews and other "undesirables" such as communists and political refugees. Much of the French public initially supported the government, despite its undemocratic nature and its difficult position vis-à-vis the germans, often seeing it as necessary to maintain a degree of French autonomy and territorial integrity. In november 1942, however, the zone libre was also occupied by Axis forces, leading to the disbandment of the remaining army and the sinking of France's lab remaining fleet and ending any semblance of independence, with Germany now closely supervising all French officials. Most of the overseas French colonies were originally under Vichy control, but with the Allied invasion of North Africa it lost one colony after another to Charles de gaulle 's Allied-oriented Free france. Public opinion in some quarters turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, and resistance to them increased.
an emphasis put on motherhood. Conservative catholics became prominent. Paris lost its avant-garde status in European art and culture. The media were tightly controlled and stressed virulent anti-semitism, and, after June 1941, anti-bolshevism. 3 The French State maintained nominal sovereignty over the whole of French territory, but had effective full sovereignty only in the unoccupied southern zone libre free zone. It had limited and only civil authority in the northern zones under military occupation. The occupation was to be a provisional state of affairs, pending the conclusion of the war, which at the time appeared imminent.
Allied landings in French North Africa in november 1942, southern France was also filsafat militarily occupied by germany and Italy. Petain's regime remained in Vichy as the nominal government of France, albeit one that clearly operated as a de facto client state of nazi germany from november 1942 onward. The vichy government nominally remained in existence on paper until the end of the war, although it lost all its remaining de facto authority in late 1944 when the. Allies liberated the whole of France. After being appointed Premier by President. Albert Lebrun, marshal Pétain ordered the French government's military representatives to sign an armistice with Germany on Pétain subsequently established an authoritarian regime when the national Assembly of the. French Third Republic granted him full powers. At that point, the Third Republic was dissolved.
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For other uses, see, vichy (disambiguation). Vichy France french : Régime de vichy ) is the common name of beauty the. French State ( État français ) headed by marshal, philippe pétain during, world War. It represented the unoccupied "Free zone" ( zone libre ) in the southern part of metropolitan France and the, french colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the vichy regime was the nominal government of all of France except. Alsace-lorraine, the german militarily occupied northern France. While paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town. Vichy, 360 km (220 mi) to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State.