Affordable housing dissertation

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57 In some cases, local governments ignore the flux of immigrants during the process of urbanization. 56 Such examples can be found in many African countries. In the early 1950s, many African governments believed that slums would finally disappear with economic growth in urban areas. They neglected rapidly spreading slums due to increased rural-urban migration caused by urbanization. 60 Some governments, moreover, mapped the land where slums occupied as undeveloped land. 61 Another type of urbanization does not involve economic growth but economic stagnation or low growth, mainly contributing to slum growth in Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. This type of urbanization involves a high rate of unemployment, insufficient financial resources and inconsistent urban planning policy.

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In addition to migration for jobs, a portion of people migrate to cities because of their connection with relatives or families. Once their family support in urban areas is in slums, those rural migrants intend to live with them in slums 52 Urbanization edit a slum in rio de janeiro, brazil. Rocinha favela is next to skyscrapers and wealthier parts of the city, a location that provides jobs and easy commute to those who live in the slums. The formation of slums is closely linked to urbanization. 53 In 2008, more than 50 of the world's population lived in urban areas. In China, for example, it is estimated that the population living in urban areas will increase by 10 within a decade according to its current rates of urbanization. 54 The un-habitat reports that 43 of urban population in developing countries and 78 of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers. 6 Some scholars suggest that urbanization creates slums because local governments are unable to manage urbanization, and migrant workers without an affordable place to live in, dwell in slums. 55 Rapid urbanization drives economic growth and causes people to seek working and investment opportunities in urban areas. 56 57 However, as evidenced word by poor urban infrastructure and insufficient housing, the local governments sometimes are unable to manage this transition. 58 59 This incapacity can be attributed to insufficient funds and inexperience to handle and organize problems brought by migration and urbanization.

The proportion of people working in agriculture has declined by 30 over the last 50 years, while global population has increased by 250. 1 Many people move to urban areas primarily because cities promise more jobs, better schools for poor's children, and diverse income opportunities than subsistence farming in rural areas. 48 For example, in 1995,.8 of migrants to surabaya, indonesia reported that jobs were their primary motivation for moving to the city. 49 However, some rural migrants may not retrolisthesis find jobs immediately because of their lack of skills and the increasingly competitive job markets, which leads to their financial shortage. 50 Many cities, on the other hand, do not provide enough low-cost housing for a large number of rural-urban migrant workers. Some ruralurban migrant workers cannot afford housing in cities and eventually settle down in only affordable slums. 51 Further, rural migrants, mainly lured by higher incomes, continue to flood into cities. They thus expand the existing urban slums. 50 According to Ali and Toran, social networks might also explain ruralurban migration and people's ultimate settlement in slums.

affordable housing dissertation

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By the 1960s, over 33 of population of rio lived in slums, 45 of Mexico city and Ankara, 65 of Algiers, 35 of Caracas, 25 of Lima and Santiago, 15 of Singapore. By 1980, in various cities and towns of Latin America alone, there were about 25,000 slums. 42 causes that create and expand slums edit Slums sprout and continue for a combination of demographic, social, economic, and political reasons. Common causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, poor planning, economic stagnation and depression, poverty, high unemployment, informal economy, colonialism and segregation, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts. Ruralurban migration edit ruralurban migration is one of the causes attributed to the formation and expansion of slums., world population has increased at a far greater rate than the total amount of arable land, even as agriculture contributes a much smaller percentage of the total. For example, in India, agriculture accounted for 52 of its gdp in 1954 and only 19 in 2004; 46 in Brazil, the 2005 gdp contribution of agriculture is one-fifth of its contribution in 1951. 47 Agriculture, meanwhile, has also become higher yielding, less disease prone, less physically harsh and more efficient with tractors and other equipment.

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affordable housing dissertation

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Bars, bordellos, squalid and lightless tenements lined its streets. Violence writing and crime were commonplace. Politicians and social elite discussed it with derision. Slums like five points triggered discussions of affordable housing and slum removal. As of the minotaur start of the 21st century, five points slum had been transformed into the little Italy and Chinatown neighborhoods of New York city, through that city's campaign of massive urban renewal. 3 33 five points was not the only slum in America. 35 36 Jacob riis, walker evans, lewis Hine and others photographed many before world War.

Slums were found in every major urban region of the United States throughout most of the 20th century, long after the Great Depression. Most of these slums had been ignored by the cities and states which encompassed them until the 1960s' war on poverty was undertaken by the federal government of the United States. A type of slum housing, sometimes called poorhouses, crowded the boston Commons, later at the fringes of the city. 37 A 1913 slum dwelling midst squalor in Ivry-sur-seine, a french commune about 5 kilometers from center of Paris. Slums were scattered around Paris through the 1950s. 38 39 After loi vivien was passed in July 1970, France demolished some of its last major bidonvilles (slums) and resettled resident Algerian, portuguese and other migrant workers by the mid-1970s. 40 41 rio de janeiro documented its first slum in 1920 census.

21 24 In France as in most industrialised European capitals, slums were widespread in Paris and other urban areas in the 19th century, many of which continued through first half of the 20th century. The first cholera epidemic of 1832 triggered a political debate, and louis René villermé study 27 of various arrondissements of Paris demonstrated the differences and connection between slums, poverty and poor health. 28 Melun Law first passed in 1849 and revised in 1851, followed by establishment of Paris Commission on Unhealthful Dwellings in 1852 began the social process of identifying the worst housing inside slums, but did not remove or replace slums. After World War ii, french people started mass migration from rural to urban areas of France. This demographic and economic trend rapidly raised rents of existing housing as well as expanded slums. French government passed laws to block increase in the rent of housing, which inadvertently made many housing projects unprofitable and increased slums.

In 1950, France launched its Habitation à loyer Modéré 29 30 initiative to finance and build public housing and remove slums, managed by techniciens urban technocrats., 31 and financed by livret A 32 a tax free savings account for French public. New York city is believed to have created America's first slum, named the five points in 1825, as it evolved into a large urban settlement. 4 33 five points was named for a lake named Collect. 33 34 which, by the late 1700s, was surrounded by slaughterhouses and tanneries which emptied their waste directly into its waters. Trash piled up as well and by the early 1800s the lake was filled up and dry. On this foundation was built five points, the United States' first slum. Five points was occupied by successive waves of freed slaves, Irish, then Italian, then Chinese, immigrants. It housed the poor, rural people leaving farms for opportunity, and the persecuted people from Europe pouring into new York city.

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In Europe, slums were common. 19 s it had become a umum common slang expression in England, meaning either various taverns and eating houses, "loose talk" or gypsy language, or a room with "low going-ons". In Life in London pierce Egan used the word in the context of the "back slums" of Holy lane or St Giles. A footnote defined slum to mean "low, unfrequent parts of the town". Charles Dickens used the word slum in a similar way in 1840, writing "I mean to take a great, london, back-slum kind walk tonight". Slum began to be used to describe bad housing soon after and was used as alternative expression for rookeries. 21 In 1850 the catholic Cardinal Wiseman described the area known as devil's Acre in Westminster, london as follows: Close under the Abbey of Westminster there lie concealed labyrinths of lanes and potty and alleys and slums, nests of ignorance, vice, depravity, and crime,. 22 This passage was widely"d in the national press, 23 leading to the popularisation of the word slum to describe bad housing.

affordable housing dissertation

London's East End is generally considered the locale where the term originated in the 19th century, where massive and rapid urbanisation of the dockside and industrial areas led to intensive overcrowding in a warren of post-medieval streetscape. The suffering of the poor was described in popular fiction by moralist authors such as Charles Dickens most famously Oliver Twist (1837-9) and echoed the ' christian Socialist ' values of the time, which soon found legal expression in the public health Act of 1848. As the slum clearance movement gathered pace, deprived areas such as Old Nichol were fictionalised to raise awareness in the middle classes in the form of moralist novels such as a child of the jago (1896) resulting in slum clearance and reconstruction programmes such. Slums are often associated with Victorian Britain, particularly in industrial English towns, lowland Scottish towns and Dublin City paper in Ireland. Engels described these British neighborhoods as "cattle-sheds for human beings". 17 These were generally still inhabited until the 1940s, when the British government started slum clearance and built new council houses. 18 There are still examples left of slum housing in the uk, but many have been removed by government initiative, redesigned and replaced with better public housing.

numerous other non English terms. 16 History edit One of the many new York city slum photographs of Jacob riis (ca 1890). Squalor can be seen in the streets, wash clothes hanging between buildings. Inside of a slum house, from Jacob riis photo collection of New York city (ca 1890). Part of Charles booth 's poverty map showing the Old Nichol, a slum in the east End of London. Published 1889 in Life and Labour of the people in London. The red areas are "middle class, well-to-do light blue areas are "poor, 18s to 21s a week for a moderate family dark blue areas are "very poor, casual, chronic want and black areas are the "lowest class. Occasional labourers, street sellers, loafers, criminals and semi-criminals". Slums were common in the United States and Europe before the early 20th century.

Among individual countries, the essay proportion of urban residents living in slum areas in 2009 was highest in the. Central African Republic (95.9). Between 19 the percentage of people living in slums dropped, even as the total urban population increased. The world's largest slum city is found in the neza - chalco - ixtapaluca area, located in the State of Mexico. 8 9 10 Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts. 1 11 12 Strategies tried to reduce and transform slums in different countries, with varying degrees of success, include a combination of slum removal, slum relocation, slum upgrading, urban planning with citywide infrastructure development, and public housing.

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A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of restaurant closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons. 1, while slums differ in size and other characteristics, most lack reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Slum residences vary from shanty houses to professionally built dwellings which, because of poor-quality construction or provision of basic maintenance, have deteriorated. 2, due to increasing urbanization of the general populace, slums became common in the 18th to late 20th centuries in the United States and Europe. 3 4, slums are still predominantly found in urban regions of developing countries, but are also still found in developed economies. 5 6, according to, un-habitat, around 33 of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people, lived in slums. The proportion of urban population living in slums was highest. Sub-Saharan Africa (61.7 followed by, south Asia (35 southeast Asia (31 east Asia (28.2 west Asia (24.6 Oceania (24.1 latin America and the, caribbean (23.5 and, north Africa (13.3).

Affordable housing dissertation
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