by 470 mya, land plants first appeared, and trees appeared by 385 mya. . Amphibians came on the scene about 365 mya. . About 320 million years ago, reptiles made their appearance, with dinosaurs and mammals making their debut about 230-225 mya, and birds appearing 160 million years ago. . Flowering plants appeared about 160 million years ago. . Primates appeared about 85 mya, and about 66 million years ago, dinosaurs were wiped out by an asteroid, and mammals came to dominate earth. . That is the accepted story in scientific circles today, of course subject to revision, perhaps radical, as more evidence comes to light. Less than 600 million years ago, when evolution took its great leap forward, the oceans teemed with life. .
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Usually, the energy from photosynthesis allows a plant to combine water and carbon dioxide into a sugar known as glucose. . Animals fuel their bodies with glucose. . Glucose is a sugar, and is the simplest member of a class of substances known as carbohydrates. . Other simple sugars are fructose and galactose. . Through that captured first sunlight energy more bonds can be formed, and glucose can bond with itself and other substances such as water to create more complicated sugars, such as sucrose, dissertations lactose, and maltose. . The bonding can become even more complicated to create complex carbohydrates such as starches and cellulose. . Next to glucose, cellulose may be the most important carbohydrate as far as earthly life is concerned, because cellulose comprises the cell walls, and hence most of the structure, along with lignin, which is an even more complex molecule, of plants. . Without cellulose and lignin, there would not be trees, flowers, grass, or much of anything living beyond the oceans, and little in them. A little less than 600 million years ago mya, there was a great leap of evolution. . The three billion years of microscopic organism evolution gave way to a myriad of complicated plant and animal life. . Complex sea animals developed, with fish appearing about 530 mya. .
An atom is made of a nucleus orbited by electrons. . The electrons orbit at varying distances from the nucleus in shells, depending on the electrons energy levels. . That variable energy level of the electron shell is what makes life possible. As life first came into existence on Earth, whether through evolution or being planted here by our galactic neighbors or from beyond this dimension, there was a trick it learned that made life on Earth possible: it captured the suns energy. . There is more than one way it happens, but they all fall under the category of photosynthesis (except for chemical-synthesizing bacteria ). The chemistry is complicated, but in essence the photons of sunlight hit the chlorophyll in plant cells, and the electron shells absorb that energy. . With that increased energy, the atom can form bonds with other atoms that it could not previously accomplish. .
Radio waves are long waves of er, and the energy they carry is relatively small. . X-rays are short waves, and their relative energy is great. . What is called light has a wavelength between those of radio waves and X-rays. . The sun produces er in a wide array of wavelengths (also known as frequencies; the longer the wavelength, the less the frequency, as the velocity is constant). . Also, the sun shoots out pelleas electrons and other subatomic particles at an extremely high velocity. If not for Earths atmosphere and magnetic field, its surface would be bombarded with high-energy er and subatomic particles, and life as we know it would not exist. . Earth, however, has a magnetic belt (called the van Allen belt) and atmospheric layers such as the ozone layer that deflect and absorb much of the high-energy er that the sun emits. . Most of the suns energy that hits Earths surface is in the visible spectrum of light. . Although light acts as a wave, that wave comes vegetarianism in discrete packets known as quanta.
In order for life to exist, it needed energy, and from the earliest examples we know of, the suns energy was captured to fuel that life. According to todays understanding, stars are fusion reactors, mostly composed of hydrogen, the universes simplest element. . Hydrogen is fused into helium, the next simplest element, in a stars core, and a vast amount of energy is thereby given off. . The processes of fusion and fission involve an atoms nucleus. . When the fusion reaction occurs, energy is given off in the form of electromagnetic radiation er called light when it occurs at particular wavelengths. . Light is still an enigma to science, because it seems to be a wave at times and a particle at others. . In its wave state, the length of the wave determines how much energy it carries. .
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As our star settled into its life, something happened on a tiny fragment that orbits. . That fragment - a mere mote in the cosmos - is nearly completely metallic, largely composed of iron, but on its surface a thin layer of lighter elements rose and settled. . That layer is relatively as thick as an apples skin, a layer that humanity calls home. . Eight elements - oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium - make up nearly 99 of Earths crust. . Some even lighter elements ride atop those elements, with an oxygen-hydrogen compound covering most of Earths surface, and nitrogen, oxygen and argon comprising.9 of the atmosphere. . There are merely trace amounts of carbon, sulfur, chlorine, fluorine and some others, with most elements occurring in tiny amounts in Earths crust.
Scientists have and developed theories, partly based upon observations, which guess what may have happened a long time ago. . The oxygen-hydrogen compound that blankets Earth, known as water, would be a gas instead of a liquid, except for resume the peculiar way that water molecules are attracted to each other, due to their electrical polarity. . In the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, which makes up about.04 of the atmosphere. . However, if it were not there, helping to capture the suns energy, earths surface would probably be about 10-15 F colder than today. . The fortuitous properties of water and carbon dioxide helped set the stage for something apparently unique in our star system. . Today, it is theorized that life began more than three billion years ago on Earth. . For about three billion years, life was largely confined to unicellular organisms, which lived in the ocean. .
What happened to the ventures that Dennis lee headed is a case study of how alternative energy is suppressed. Alternative energy has been systematically suppressed, on a global scale, for the past century, and free energy technology has probably existed for a long time. . Free energy would eliminate the energy industry, help heal Earth, increase humanitys standard of living by a few orders of magnitude, and could end the zero-sum Game that humanity has been playing for the past 10,000 years or more. . The exploitation of energy may exterminate the human species, but it does not have to be that way. . If we wake up and begin caring, solving our problems is easy. .
If we stay asleep, we are doomed. . The problem has a lot more to do with integrity than technology or intelligence. . Personal integrity is the worlds scarcest commodity, and it needs to become more plentiful if humanity is to avoid its self-extinction. . It is up. A brief Prehistory of E nergy and Life on Earth Ninety-three million miles away is the star my planet orbits. . It is an average star, one of about 200 billion in its galaxy, placed on one of the galaxys outer arms. . Our galaxy is unremarkable, one of perhaps a trillion within range of todays telescopes. . According to todays theories, our star has been burning for about.6 billion years, and will burn for seven billion more before it consumes its fuel and dies. .
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Early agricultural practices also exhausted the lands, although the dynamic of deforestation, assignments farming, and desertification persists to this day. . As the energy of wood was used up, and the resultant deforested lands were devastated by agricultural practices, other sources of energy were exploited, leading to the fossil fuel revolution, which began with coal mining in deforested England and replacing wood for smelting iron, and. In the late 19th century, oil became the next fuel to undergo large-scale exploitation, and its use coincided with amassing capitalistic, monopolistic empires, significantly by United States robber barons, john Rockefeller most notably. . His oil companies still dominate the oil industry, and fossil fuels comprise more than 80 of world energy production in 2014. . The process shortage of extracting and using fossil fuels is environmentally disastrous. . Rapid global warming, mainly caused by burning fossil fuels, is one of the greatest threats that humanity faces today. The wests capitalistic ideology has transformed a traditional deadly sin, greed, into a virtue, and the racketeering impulse has guided the creation of all capitalistic empires. Every significant industry and profession is largely a self-serving racket, and the larger and more powerful the industry or profession is, the more it resembles an outright racket, which I discovered the hard way during my adventures. . I participated in a significant effort to bring alternative energy to the marketplace, maybe the most significant ever. .
Domestication of animals and food crops led to civilization. . Domesticating animals, plants and enslaving humans were the significant activities of early civilization, and ideological indoctrination began in those early days, as the slaves needed textured to be conditioned to accept their status. . The positions of the new elite classes also needed an acceptable justification. . Often the most ruthless and successful elites became royalty. The human journey has largely been about refining methods of exploiting energy and manipulating the natural environment to human benefit. . The west calls that process progress. . The extinction of large, easily killed animals was probably the earliest instance of humans exhausting their primary energy source (although original migrations from Africa might have been due to outstripping energy supplies). .
dietary mainstay. . by walking upright and making tools, humanitys ancestors exploited new energy resources, such as animal remains scavenged from predator kills. . Early protohumans migrated from Africa about two million years ago, probably following migrating African predators. . They eventually harnessed fire and invented other energy-consuming/preserving adaptations, such as clothing, which allowed them to survive past their natural range in the tropics. About 200,000 years ago, anatomically modern humans appeared. . by about 60,000 years ago, humans improved their weapons technology to the point where they became earths first and only super-predator, and expanded its range across the entire planet. . by about 10,000 years ago, humanity had exterminated all the easily hunted large animals, and the hunter-gatherer lifestyle was no longer sustainable on a global basis. .
The, greatest Energy of All, footnotes. Introductio n and Summary, dear readers: in the summer of 2014, this essay buy was largely superseded by this essay. . I trimmed this essay down to reflect that the 2014 essay delves far deeper into many issues that this essay originally covered. . my original energy essay was written around 2001, and could be considered the embryonic version of the 2014 version. . This essay's remaining parts are probably best read in context of the 2014 essay, and many links to this essay come from that essay. Todays energy industry is perhaps the worlds most powerful. . Energy is the basis of all of this worlds wealth, and for perhaps Earths entire history, the suns energy has fueled all ecological and economic systems. . If early humans did not learn to exploit new sources of energy, humankind would still be living with its ape cousins in the tropical forests. . Without the continual exploitation of new energy sources, there would have been no civilization, no Industrial revolution and no looming global catastrophe.
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The Energy racket, the Energy racket,. Wade Frazier, revised in June 2014, introduction and Summary. A brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early, civilization, Energy and the zero-sum Game. The, essay rise of Europe and Energy Exploitation. The, industrial revolution and the Science of Energy. The, energy racket takes Shape, science and the "Real World. First Glimpse, world, energy Economics, a case history in Alternative energy suppression. Why, is There no alternative energy?